Advertising – Any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor.
Personal selling – Personal presentation by the firm’s sales force for the purpose of making sales and building customer relationships.
Sales promotion – Short-term incentives to encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service.
Public relations – Building good relationships with the company’s various publics by obtaining favourable publicity, building up a good “corporate image”, and handling or heading off unfavourable rumours, stories, and events.
Direct marketing – Direct communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships.
Fundraising – Events, letter campaigns, church relations, community events